Numbers, Pics & Classes (All of the Nitty Gritty!)

Numbers, Pics & Classes (All of the Nitty Gritty!)

I wrote my first BiggerPockets weblog publish not too way back. It was arduous to write down, scary to publish, and an superior studying expertise. Writing is difficult, y’all. Perhaps the remainder of you poop out phrases like a child on prune juice, however for me, it’s a continuing battle between daring to be who I’m and attempting to be who I believe I ought to. And man, generally the battle is brutal. So thanks for standing by and staying tuned whereas I regrouped and patched up the troops.

A part of my why, and my driving power. Through: @fristromphoto

In my first article, I wrote about how I used to be in a position to purchase seven leases whereas jobless, pregnant, and new to the world. I selected to concentrate on mindset, as I strongly consider that no matter our previous, or social standing, all of us have one factor in widespread. We can not management all that occurs to us, however we will management our ideas and actions. I acquired some superior suggestions from you wanting to listen to extra particulars, in order that’s what I plan on sharing with this text. Concrete stuff, the nitty gritty.

However I simply can’t try this with out telling you shortly about my mother first.

To Get The place You Wish to Go, You Should First Be Who You Must Be

My mother was paralyzed after I was a toddler. I’m the third little one of 4, and we have been all beneath the age of six when it occurred. Lengthy story quick: She had neurosurgery that failed and led to her being bed-ridden for 14 years. She couldn’t sit or stand lengthy even with help. On a very good day, she may stroll a pair hundred yards with a walker. She may principally solely lie down on one aspect if the mattress was fully nonetheless. Typically the ambulance took her to the hospital to provide her stronger IV meds for the excruciating nerve ache.

My mother did just about every little thing mendacity down on her aspect. Right here she is peeling carrots like a boss.

She couldn’t sit, so wheelchairs have been sort of non-helpful. And regular automobile rides have been out of the image. She may have simply stayed dwelling—and rightfully so. However as an alternative of claiming, “I can’t,” she would strive to think about methods to get round her incapacity by asking, “How can I?” So, as an example, she crawled up within the trunk of our Volvo 245 wagon and lied there on a mattress. That manner, she may journey by automobile a number of miles. Think about the look on folks’s faces when she crawled out of the trunk like a canine.

She additionally had my dad noticed up a tiny mattress. It was thick sufficient that she may lie on it on the ground on her aspect with out dying of ache, however sufficiently small that she may haul it beneath her arm whereas strolling with the walker. When the ache acquired too intense, she’d simply lie down on the mattress on the ground wherever she was.

My mother has impressed and taught me shift my mindset from “I can’t ” to “how can I?” This was how she may journey by automobile a bit bit.

I inform you all this as a result of with out seeing my mother overcome these experiences and challenges, I wouldn’t be who I’m as we speak. And who I’m is what determines what I do. I’ve additionally realized that who I used to be acquired me the place I’m as we speak, however it might not get me the place I need to go sooner or later. That’s why self-development is certainly one of my key focus areas in actual property investing and life.

My mother and her walker a.ok.a. the brown stallion.

“If you wish to have extra success, you want to grow to be extra.” —Jim Rohn

The Heat Up

My first article truly didn’t account for my first actual property investing deal as a result of it occurred after I was nonetheless residing the blissful DINK (Double Revenue, No Youngsters) life, bathing in champagne and sleeping on silk sheets till I used to be woken up by birds chirping Disney tunes after a well-rested evening.

Not fairly, however that’s what I think about now when considering again to the pre-kid glory days. I technically began actual property investing manner earlier than my first deal, about 12 years in the past after I first began studying about it. I assumed it is best to all know that.

“Give me six hours to cut down a tree and I’ll spend the primary 4 sharpening the axe.” —Abraham Lincoln

Rental #1: Popping the Cherry

Earlier than we took a quantum leap of religion and moved for a slower-paced, family-focused life in Finland, I had an incredible job in Silicon Valley, California. My firm supplied new staff a free monetary advisor session. He was (and is) what I wish to name the bomb-diggity. He was an actual property investor himself and advisable it to us. So 5 minutes later, we purchased our first deal in California and made a gazillion . Not.

We had been working our buns off saving cash for the previous 10 years to purchase our own residence. However in Northern California, it could in all probability have taken us one other 1,000 years or so to afford a closet to dwell in. So as an alternative of shopping for ourselves a house, we rented a small house and targeted on discovering a rental property out-of-state. It took us about three years and 5 misplaced offers. However lastly, due to trusting individuals who have been smarter than us (and had outcomes to point out for it), we bought a Three-bed/2-bath single household dwelling in Fort Collins, Colorado.

These folks have been Josh, our monetary advisor and Gregg, a tremendous native Fort Collins actual property agent Josh advisable. (Hello, Gregg, we love you. If you happen to learn this, are you able to please transfer to Finland so we will hold?) We purchased the home sight-unseen in 2015 and nonetheless personal it as we speak. It’s managed by an incredible property administration firm advisable to us by Gregg.

Our first deal, a single household dwelling in Fort Collins, Colorado. I dream about renovating it at some point.

The Nitty Gritty

  • What: Three-bed/2-bath single household home in Fort Collins, Colorado
  • Buy Value: $285Okay
  • Financing: Standard 30-year mounted fee financial institution mortgage at 5.125%
  • Present Valuation: $375Okay
  • Lease: $1,850

I do know this isn’t one of many “finest offers” on the market. But it surely acquired us began.

Loss of life by Comparability

I notice I would lose a few of you right here considering that this was simple for us. That you just couldn’t do it as a result of we had this or that and also you don’t. I’ve seen that evaluating ourselves to others could make us not even strive. And it’s such a disgrace, as a result of likelihood is that the folks you might be evaluating your self to have been in the identical scenario or worse than you some time again.

You need to know that I didn’t at all times have a fancy-schmansy Silicon Valley job. In reality, my first full-time job was at a sewer plant. And my husband didn’t fairly develop up with a silver spoon in his mouth because the fifth little one in a household of 10 youngsters. For example, he labored three jobs on the aspect of his research.

Maybe that provides you some perspective. However what I really want is that you just discover it irrelevant. As a result of I’m not operating your race, you might be. However perhaps by means of telling how I’ve run mine, it may well make it easier to run yours, together with no matter hurdles it might current. Don’t let your mindset be one of many hurdles.

“The one particular person it is best to attempt to be higher than is the particular person you have been yesterday” —Tony Robbins

Rental #2: First Deal in Finland

A couple of yr after buying the Fort Collins rental, we moved to Finland. At this level, I used to be about 4 months pregnant and had a eight-month-old child. And no job. However I had time. I spent the primary three months learning the Finnish market and specifics as a result of although the ideas are the identical, there are some main variations, particularly with regards to legal guidelines, taxation, and financing. I additionally honed in on my technique: why I do it, how I do it, and what I do. Starting with determining why I do it led me to some critical soul-searching and self-development.

My first deal in Finland was a studio house in a satellite tv for pc metropolis of Helsinki, a one-hour drive from the place we dwell. I knew it was a very good deal due to the market information I had gathered by means of learning and analyzing offers for 3 months. The one subject was financing. I didn’t have a job or the cash to pay the down fee. However I had a husband and a brother with good jobs and a few capital.

So I requested them for $20Okay, they gave it to me, and I skipped and hopped to the financial institution. Bollocks. Not fairly that simple. You see, they’re each engineers. Sensible, logical, pragmatic, analytical beings who each have labored arduous for a very long time for his or her jobs, earnings, and financial savings. So as an alternative of simply asking them for cash, I created a enterprise case. I hashed out the deal particulars in an Excel sheet and confirmed them what this deal would achieve them and the way it in comparison with the inventory market.

There’s an enormous distinction between asking for an funding in a particular take care of an incredible calculated return that beats the inventory market and easily asking for cash. That’s how I acquired the down fee for my second deal. With the down fee, we acquired a standard financial institution mortgage.

At this level, I used to be what folks in San Francisco would name hella pregnant, with a one-year-old-toddler at dwelling. And I had no concept the way to renovate, so I did what no sane particular person would do: renovate it (principally) myself. It simply took a wee bit (“wee” means a crap ton, proper?) longer and nightly YouTube how-to marathons. Once I was finished three months later, I acquired it appraised in order that I may use the fairness as safety shopping for the following one.

The kitchen: Earlier than renovation.

The kitchen: After renovation. I painted the within of the kitchen cupboards, painted the tiles, painted the ceiling and partitions, swapped out the cupboard doorways, fan, and counter high. Put in new handles and a brand new sink and faucet. My stomach and I did a lot of the work. Simply acquired assist with the cupboard doorways and counter high. And a plumber put in the brand new faucet and sink.

The Nitty Gritty

  • What: Studio house in Järvenpää, Finland
  • Buy Value: 110,000 Euro (approx. $125Okay USD)
  • Financing: Standard financial institution mortgage, adjustable fee mortgage (ARM) rate of interest zero.eight% (cash in Finland is extremely low-cost proper now, however the market can be extremely popular)
  • Renovation Price: 5,000 Euro (approx. $5,700 USD)
  • Renovation Period: Three months (I wasn’t the quickest as a complete beginner, preggo renovator—limber like a walrus)
  • After Restore Worth (ARV): 130,000 Euro (approx. $148Okay USD)
  • Fairness Enhance: 15,000 Euro (approx. $17Okay USD—not a nasty pay for a stay-at-home-mom)
  • Lease: 690 Euro (approx. $785 USD)

Work in progress. Each morning I’d rise up at 6:00 a.m., drive my one-year-old to daycare, drive an hour to the house, renovate so long as I may earlier than I had drive again to choose up Lucas.

Me, a.ok.a. the walrus, and the stomach.

Time, Data, or Cash

There’s a typical false impression that you just want cash to have the ability to start investing in actual property. It’s true that in some unspecified time in the future, cash might be required to alter fingers for a deal to be made. And in the event you do have cash, you should purchase any person’s time and information. However that doesn’t imply you could’t get began with out it.

With time, you’ll be able to collect information, and with information, you’ll be able to appeal to cash with an incredible deal, like I did. Some luck was concerned in shopping for it, however I wouldn’t have been prepared for the chance with out the preparation of gathering the information, operating the numbers, and following the market like an obsessed hawk.

 “Luck is what occurs when alternative meets preparation” —Seneca

Rental #Three: The Fantastic thing about BRRRR (Purchase, Rehab, Lease, Refinance, Repeat)

By doing the renovations principally myself on our first rental in Finland, we have been in a position to maintain the price down and release a pleasant chunk of fairness with the brand new appraisal. In Finland, the appraisal, taxation, and refinancing course of and guidelines are a bit totally different, however the precept is similar. The gist of it, in fact, being to renovate it to extend the market worth with greater than you place into it. Easy, however not at all times simple.

As an alternative of pulling the fairness that freed up within the earlier deal out, I used it as safety to purchase the following one. This manner, the achieve we made was tax deferred versus needing to pay taxes on it instantly had we offered it, as an example. This technique additionally enabled me to purchase the following yet one more rapidly, as we didn’t must have as a lot money for the down fee.

The Nitty Gritty

  • What: Studio house in Turku, Finland
  • Buy Value: 91,000 Euro (approx. $104Okay USD)
  • Financing: Standard financial institution mortgage utilizing the freed up fairness from the earlier deal as further safety to lower the down fee quantity
  • Renovation Price: 2,500 Euro (approx. $2,800 USD)
  • Renovation Period: One month (right here we acquired some assist from a contractor who knew what he was doing and had much less child in his stomach)
  • After Restore Worth (ARV): 130,000 Euro (approx. $148Okay USD)
  • Fairness Enhance: 36,500 Euro (approx. $42Okay USD)
  • Lease: 520 Euro (approx. $590 USD—the rents are decrease on this metropolis, however the fairness improve made us an incredible return on our funding)

Do What Others Don’t

The market we’re in in Finland is fairly scorching. Most offers usually are not discovered; they’re made. What I imply by that’s you want to do one thing totally different than others to get the deal.

When submitting a suggestion in Finland, you ship a brief e-mail to the vendor’s agent (if shopping for from the open market, akin to the MLS). Most affords, if not all, merely say the supplied quantity, a deadline, and potential contingencies. As an alternative of doing simply that, which is completely positive in fact, I add a bit extra info.

I used to be shopping for it with my brother, who was on paternity go away together with his child on the time, and I used to be dwelling with our infants. So I informed them about us, and what we deliberate to do with the house. I shared our real love for town we each have been born in and the way we needed to carry the house again to its mid-century glory days and make it an incredible dwelling for somebody. Turned out it was a few siblings, a brother and a sister, who have been promoting the house. I’m fairly certain our bid was not the very best of the bunch, however our bid gave them one thing else they valued, and we acquired the deal. Behind all offers, in the long run, are folks.

After the two,500 Euro (approx. $2,700 USD) renovation.

“I comply with three guidelines: Do the best factor, do the very best you’ll be able to, and at all times present folks you care.” —Lou Holtz

Rental #four and #5: My Greatest Mistake

At this level, I had popped out the second child (that’s the way you do it, by the best way—simply pop it, like a Pringle), and our first born wild-ling went to kindergarten part-time. Throughout this time, since I didn’t have a job, I began my very own consulting service enterprise (a.ok.a. my “typing on the pc whereas nursing” enterprise).

I didn’t know the way any of that labored in Finland. So, when our child slept, I figured it out as I went, by means of studying and asking. I didn’t have any purchasers after I set it up. However at some point, out of the blue, I used to be contacted by a former boss of mine whom I labored with in Stockholm years in the past. Her newly based firm wanted some assist in Finland, and she or he considered me. And tada! I had my first consumer. That, plus the rental earnings (in Finland, the banks acknowledge all rental earnings as earnings instantly), enabled me to get extra typical financial institution mortgage.

However that wasn’t sufficient to cowl the down fee for the following two residences I needed to purchase—not even when utilizing the freed up fairness from the earlier deal. My brother was out of the image for these two new development studio residences, and my husband tapped out, so I wanted to determine one other manner. So I dipped into my 401Okay financial savings. Not the sensible manner.

The Nitty Gritty

  • What: Two new development studio residences in Järvenpää, Finland
  • Buy Value: 154,400 Euro (approx. $175Okay USD) + 155,900 Euro (approx. $177Okay USD)
  • Financing: Sometimes when shopping for new development co-op residences in Finland, 70% of the mortgage stays with the co-op, and also you solely should pay 30% of the acquisition value up entrance (the co-op mortgage you repay with a month-to-month price as a part of your HOA, which with some constraints is tax deductible). In order that 70% co-op mortgage portion didn’t, on the time, hit our total debt-to-income ratio. That has now modified because the banks rightfully realized the chance in that. Using a few of the earlier offers’ fairness will increase as safety, I used to be in a position to get some further typical financial institution mortgage to cowl part of my 30% portion of the value. The remaining I acquired from an early 401Okay withdrawal.
  • Renovation Price: zero Euro
  • Present Analysis: 154,400 euro (approx. $175Okay USD) + 155,900 euro (approx. $177Okay USD)
  • Fairness Enhance: zero Euro
  • Lease: 645 Euro*2 (approx. $735 USD*2)

Make Errors and Be taught From Them

I purchased these residences with a transparent intention: to lower my total danger since all my different leases have been previous. These model new residences would more than likely be freed from expensive near-future repairs. I additionally purchased them as a method of tax optimization. However my drive to satisfy my purpose for the yr (shopping for 4 residences) made me bounce into it with out having all the knowledge and understanding of what to look out for when shopping for new development residences.

So, even with my intentions fulfilled, I ended up paying an excessive amount of for them. And as soon as the constructing was completed, the market was flooded with leases as a result of a serious institutional investor had purchased a giant portion of the constructing. I now know this is without doubt one of the main issues to look out for when shopping for new development co-op residences.

I additionally made some constrained assumption about making an early 401Okay withdrawal with out checking and confirming they have been true. For example, I assumed I’d have the ability to pay low or no taxes on it since we dwell in Finland and I barely have any earnings. Not true. Asking any CPA would have confirmed that.

However I used to be so pushed to hit my purpose and emotionally decisive on shopping for these residences, all the knowledge I discovered went straight into fueling my affirmation bias. It was a good time for self-reflection and progress. It made me revisit the best way I take into consideration, set, and chase objectives. I like that I made these errors due to what they taught me, and had I not purchased them, we wouldn’t have met the superb tenants that dwell in them.

“I by no means lose. I both win or be taught.” —Nelson Mandela

Rental #6: Be a Pleasure to Work With  

When this deal hit the market, I jumped. However so did quite a lot of different folks. Once I known as the itemizing agent that Friday evening, I may hear her stress over the cellphone. So I paused and requested her how she was doing. She was a bit shocked in regards to the query, however gladly informed me. She had gotten bids with ridiculously quick deadlines (like two hours), sending her on a wild, unsuccessful goose chase to get ahold of the vendor for a response. So I requested her how I may assist. We talked about what could be a very good deal for the vendor, a very good deal for me, and a very good deal for her. Collectively, we discovered that. And I acquired the deal. Folks, folks, folks. Behind each deal are folks.

The Nitty Gritty

  • What: A 1950 studio house in Porvoo, Finland
  • Buy Value: 101,000 Euro (approx. $115Okay USD)
  • Financing: Standard financial institution mortgage utilizing the BRRRR technique and the incoming money circulate from the earlier offers; partnership with my brother
  • Renovation value: 10,500 Euro (approx. $12Okay USD)
  • Renovation Period: Two months (not preggo anymore, however nursing each six seconds or so)
  • After Restore Worth (ARV): 128,000 Euro (approx. $145Okay USD)
  • Fairness Enhance: 16,500 Euro (approx. $19Okay USD)
  • Lease: 670 Euro (approx. $760 USD)

Earlier than the renovation.

After renovation. We redid the whole kitchen and all surfaces besides the toilet.

 Issues are totally different in Finland, however individuals are not. Properly, we wish to be bare right here extra. There’s that. However jokes apart, folks wish to work with people who find themselves simple to work with. Those that carry them worth and pleasure. And those that deal with them with respect.

That’s certainly one of my favourite issues about actual property. All of it comes all the way down to folks, encounters, and interactions. This contains interactions with the ironmongery shop register, the financial institution customer support (I just lately discovered that the financial institution charges its clients too), the co-op janitor, and the neighbors (extra on that beneath).

“Do unto others as you’d have them do unto you.” —Matthew 7:42

Can you notice the newborn?

Rental #7: Doing What It Takes

I’ve at all times liked the hustle and bustle of cities. The heartbeat of individuals close by. The concrete jungle. So we’ve at all times lived downtown—till now. Transferring from California to Finland enabled us to purchase our first dwelling. However shopping for one thing downtown would have put us as much as our eyeballs in debt. So as an alternative, we moved to the outskirts of the ‘burb of the ‘burb… of the ‘burb. I imply, we’ve got rabbits and deer skipping by our yard. This helped us maintain our debt-to-income ratio in examine. But it surely was a tough determination on the time. With no clear, passionate “why,” I wouldn’t have been ready or prepared to do it. Had we purchased one thing larger or nearer to town, we wouldn’t have been in a position to put money into these actual property offers.

However we’ve additionally made smaller choices to optimize our skill to speculate. For example, I purchase all my and our children garments secondhand. As an alternative of shopping for a second automobile, I’ve borrowed one and use public transportation at any time when I can (which is free right here when touring with a child in a stroller). Due to all these choices mixed with the snowball impact of the earlier offers, earnings from my consulting companies, and a bonus, we have been in a position to purchase this deal quicker than anticipated.

I’ve a very good life, and I notice my choices might not be as arduous as any person else’s. Not having a second automobile is such a primary world downside. However my level is I had selections. As soon as I had a transparent purpose set, the query I needed to ask myself was, “Am I’m prepared to do what it takes?”

The Nitty Gritty

  • What: A 1934 studio house in Helsinki, Finland
  • Buy Value: 143,000 Euro (approx. $163Okay USD)
  • Financing: Standard financial institution mortgage utilizing the BRRRR technique and the incoming money circulate from the earlier offers; partnership with my brother and husband.
  • Renovation Price: None to date. We purchased it with a tenant who we love, who likes the house as is so we’re holding on renovating it. That allowed us to roll within the renovation cash into the following deal as an alternative.
  • Present Analysis: 143,000 Euro (approx. $163Okay USD)
  • Fairness Enhance: We haven’t reappraised it but since we haven’t renovated it but. Comparable, however renovated residences within the space promote for round 180,000-200,000 Euro (approx. $205Okay-228Okay USD)

“If you would like one thing you’ve by no means had, you have to be prepared to do one thing you’ve by no means finished” —Thomas Jeferson

Rental #eight: The Abundance Mindset

One of many predominant issues I discovered about when residing and dealing in Silicon Valley was the best way folks thought of others’ success. Within the Nordics, folks generally tend to have a shortage mindset. If any person succeeds, which means much less likelihood so that you can discover success.

Within the U.S., and Silicon Valley specifically, it was the other. If any person drove a pleasant automobile, folks would ask them what they did and assume, “In the event that they they did it, so can I.” There was additionally a special stage of openness and willingness to share one’s learnings with others—a mindset of abundance. Not often do folks right here even inform others they’re actual property traders as a result of they concern these folks will steal their offers, or God forbid, assume they’re profitable or wealthy.

Once I was renovating this final rental house with Stella, 12 months previous on the time, I began speaking to a neighbor on the native lunch restaurant. Channeling my inside Nor-Cal, I bravely informed him I used to be an actual property investor at present renovating an house within the close by constructing. Turned out he was one too, and he ended up serving to me rip out one of many previous kitchen cupboards I had been scuffling with. He additionally gave me a ton of suggestions. And it doesn’t finish there. His brother-in-law runs certainly one of Finland’s finest wholesaling firms that I now have the pleasure of realizing about due to that encounter over fish soup. Folks, folks, folks. Behind every little thing is folks. Simply folks.

Earlier than renovation. The balcony particularly was in fairly unhealthy, even harmful, form.

After renovation. The balcony transformation is fairly rad. We solely put in about $500 to the balcony, plus sweat fairness.

The Nitty Gritty:

  • What? A 1970 high flooring studio house in Espoo, Finland
  • Buy Value: 134,000 Euro (approx. $152Okay USD)
  • Financing: Standard financial institution mortgage utilizing the BRRRR technique and the incoming money circulate from the earlier offers; partnership with my brother and husband.
  • Renovation Price: 7,000 Euro (approx. $8K USD—the primary time we rebuilt the whole kitchen. Some main, expensive, learnings that chipped away on the price range, and taught us so many precious classes. Completely price it.)
  • Renovation Period: Three months
  • After Restore Worth (ARV): 155,000 Euro (approx. $176Okay USD)
  • Fairness Enhance: 14,000 Euro (approx. $16Okay USD)

My little helper.

“If you happen to strategy the ocean with a cup, you’ll be able to solely take away a cupful. If you happen to strategy it with a bucket, you’ll be able to take a manner a bucketful.” —Ramana Raharshi


On the BiggerPockets Podcast, Brandon Turner asks the visitors what units aside profitable actual property traders from those that fail or by no means get began. I believe it’s various things at totally different occasions. However first, I’d wish to take a second and outline success. For me, it goes past cash or variety of doorways. At my loss of life mattress, I’d rely my life profitable if I’ve led a life true to myself, finished significant work the place I’ve been in a position to assist others, had interactions I’m happy with, been courageous doing issues regardless of being scared, and finally, been an individual my youngsters are happy with.

By means of actual property investing, I’m in a position to work on realizing all these issues, and that provides me an unimaginable sense of function. That function is what fuels me. An engine wants totally different elements to work, and in my actual property investing machine, these elements are issues akin to grit, consistency and focus, loving the method, willingness to be taught, accountability, vulnerability, having an incredible workforce and help at dwelling and from associates, asking for assist, and spending time with folks smarter than me to get challenged and questioned. However even with all these elements, the engine wouldn’t work with out the gasoline.

I like how actual property investing has helped me educate my youngsters the way to work arduous, make significant progress, proceed regardless of concern, and to have interactions to be happy with.

Name to Motion

Who do you want to be to get the place you need to go? What are the totally different elements of your engine that may make it easier to get there, and do you’ve sufficient and the proper of gasoline to maintain the machine going? If there’s a hiccup in your engine, may you repair it? And are you prepared to do what it takes to repair it?

What’s one factor you are able to do as we speak to get nearer to the life you need?

Depart all of your questions and feedback beneath!


Realt Writer

Related posts

Self-Assist Books Do Extra Hurt Than Good

In the event you’ve spent any size of time making an attempt to “succeed” in life, you...

Continue reading
by Realt Writer

Find out how to Add $554ok to Your Property Worth

The online working revenue (NOI) of a multifamily property is as essential to actual property...

Continue reading
by Realt Writer

three Pre-Inspection Crimson Flags That Make Me Run From a Deal

One of many largest errors I’ve made previously was shopping for properties with out getting...

Continue reading
by Realt Writer

Join The Discussion